Nirvana is a Buddhist philosophical concept of liberation, a state of complete peace free from the sufferings of life. Buddhism takes the concept and meaning of nirvana as the basis for the explanation of rebirth. Let us know more about this topic with Buddhist objects through the article given below.
What is Nirvana?
I. Concept of Nirvana
Nirvana in Sanskrit is nirvana, and nirvana in Pali. Don Trung also explains that: Nirvana occurs when “the monk’s view has cast off his sufferings, and has no attachment to himself”. And according to the philosophical words: “Nir (nir): escape, ban (vana): forest, which means escape from the forest of darkness”.
Shaman Xuanzang explains Nirvana’s philosophy of Nirvana (in Sanskrit language) as follows:
- nir (nirvana): running away, separation; Vana (table): way, roundabout, change. Nirvana means getting rid of the vicious cycle (coming out of the cycle of birth and death)
- nir (nirvana): no; Vana (table): Stinky, dirty. Nirvana is no longer smelly, dirty (pure, pure)
- nir (nirvana): separation, elimination, abandonment; Vana (table): Jungle. Nirvana is separation from the jungle (removing the impurities of life).
Man becomes free when the karma of the world ends
All the above explanations have one thing in common: Nirvana is the cessation of desires, cessation of samsara karma, and absolute purity. It is the state of the cessation of eternal space and time, complete purity, silence, clarity, cessation of craving, eradication of ignorance, and cessation of suffering in the deepest spiritual realm of man.
Most religions say that man is made up of two parts: body and soul. The body part exists temporarily; The soul is eternal, so when the body perishes, the soul has to be reborn in a new body, starting a new life. Only Buddhist philosophy does not believe that the soul is immortal, so there is no need for a place for the soul to reside. The goal in Buddhism is not to lead a person full of desires, to nirvana in the darkness of human life.
Nirvana condenses eternal space and time into the deepest spiritual realm of man
The concept of nirvana was also used in the ancient Indian Upanishads to refer to the difference between the individual soul (atman) and the universal soul (Brahman), between the lesser self and the greater self, and the nirvana identified with Brahman. This concept is newer and more unique when it comes to Buddhism.
So what do Buddhist scriptures say about the concept of Nirvana?
Many times Buddha’s disciples asked him about this. But he often avoided answering and replied: “What has not been revealed, will not be revealed.” It is not possible to speak in clear, unimaginable terms about the concept of Nirvana.
The five sutras contain 32 words with similar meanings such as: “high goal”, “truth”, “enlightenment”, “liberation”… Unlike the nirvana sutra, the mentioned concept is negative: “suffering” destruction”, “ignorance of ignorance” “, “Destruction of love”, “No karma”, “No passion”, “No hindrance”…
The Buddha described: “The annihilation of desire is nirvana”.
Usually, concentration is the transformation of a smaller concept into a larger concept in order to indicate a particular feature. But for a concept that is too broad, and there is no other concept with a broader range, the concept must be related to the opposite concept.
In the original teaching, the Buddha used this unique way of defining the concept: nirvana as a separation from the real world.
The real world is suffering, so nirvana is “the cessation of suffering”; The real world is not apparent “ignorance”, so nirvana is “ignorance cessation”… It can be seen that many Buddhist scriptures talk about nirvana as follows: “The destruction of desire is nirvana, peace. All cessation of limited things, of all evils, cessation of desire, liberation, cessation, nirvana”; “steadfast, fixed, free from attachment, end of craving, celibacy, peace, nirvana”, “cease desire, get rid of it, get rid of it”.
The Buddha compares the sequence of life in samsara to the flame burning on a candle. The candle extinguishes, another candle burns. As karmic energy passes from one life to another, so the flame passes from candle to candle. Man becomes free only when the flow of energy stops, due to which the karma of the world comes to an end.
Nirvana with its characteristics of permanence, happiness, self and purity is the opposite of the ordinary, suffering, non-self and impure in the real world.
Where will the enlightened ones go after death?
Buddha ordered to collect dry woods, then light a fire. The more wood, the bigger the fire, if you don’t add more wood, the fire will go out. The Buddha asked: “Where will this fire go? No, it is closed.” This is what happens to enlightened people. Desire ignites a fiery fire that spreads through the world. If lust is put out then that fire will be extinguished and extinguished. Nirvana like dew bar, then cool.
There are also times when the Buddha compares Nirvana to the unborn, the undeveloped, the limitless. Middle Eastern sutras say that nirvana is identical with absolute truth, far beyond the concept of relativity.
In fact, Nirvana in Buddhism is the concept of neither time nor space, which is indefinite in all aspects, without beginning, without end. So, how to find Nirvana when you don’t know where Nirvana is when you don’t know the specific time and place? The Buddha replied that: Nirvana is not at the end of the world but in the depths of man.
Get out of the ego to lead to Nirvana, if you still cling to yourself, you can’t get rid of suffering
According to Buddha, due to wrong thinking, people have not been able to attain Nirvana in reality. So in order to reach Nirvana, one needs to overcome the mistakes in the ego, to “kill ignorance”, the “impermanent” and the “not-self” to become enlightened.
“Nirvana has no self, no limit, no place, because Nirvana is formless and formless, therefore it is difficult to enter. To enter Nirvana one must be formless like Nirvana. The door to Nirvana is only a hair thread, unable to carry the burden of hope to Nirvana. I can’t even handle my body, not even my mind – I can’t. The bigger the ego, the farther it is from Nirvana. You must know: self-rebirth, self-nirvana.”
Walpola Rahula analysed: “The person who has realized the truth is the happiest person in the world, free from guilt, passion, pain and anxieties that have made others unhappy. Don’t regret the past, don’t dream about the future, live for the present. They are often awake, enjoying all things and pure life, the six senses, in a calm and serene manner.
Those who know the truth have put an end to lust, selfishness, hatred, arrogance and impurity. He has purity, humility, tolerance, kindness. Serving others enthusiastically without earning money, without thinking of themselves, even in the spiritual realm, because they are freed from the higher ego…”.
absolute nirvana is non-residual nirvana, relative nirvana is residual nirvana
Buddhism is often interested in two basic forms: nirvana with residue and nirvana without residue.
Relative nirvana (eternal nirvana) is residual nirvana which means: attaining nirvana while the body is still in existence, but the mind has escaped from samsara. Although the person is alive, his mind is free from afflictions by eliminating greed, hatred and delusion. Buddha Shakyamuni also went to Nirvana in samsara at the age of 35, when he saw the morning star rising, he sat under the Bodhi tree for 49 days to experience the truth. For the rest of his life, even though his mind had destroyed ignorance, he could not escape the cycle of birth-old age-disease-death.
Absolute nirvana (nirvana in the world) with no residual nirvana is also called great nirvana. The Janma Sutra states that: “The state of Arhat, Self-realization, Eradication of suffering, Establishment of pious life, What was to be done has been done, Removal of burden, Liberation. Now all feelings do not arise from reason, expect Don’t worry, don’t hope, calm down, don’t argue, don’t say yes, don’t say no, don’t assume there is no one.”
Nirvana is attained without any residue at the end of all material existence.
The analogy between nirvana residual and no residual nirvana indicates a spiritual state of purity, freedom, and independence. The difference is that nirvana is attained when the body is alive or dead.
Both nirvana with residue nirvana and no residue nirvana refer to a spiritual state of purity, freedom, and independence, the difference being that nirvana is attained when the body is alive or dead.
Second. What is the meaning of Nirvana in Buddhism?
In the past, the world-respected man used the means of understanding the Dharma and choosing to become a Buddha, that is, to attain nirvana, to announce and show the salvation of all sentient beings at all levels and levels. But sentient beings are still attracted to do evil. At the time of passing away, he once again spoke eloquently about Nirvana for all sentient beings.
Nirvana in Buddhism means the absence of impurities. There is no greed, anger, attraction, hatred, malice… there is no tribulation, there is joy itself, there is patience, there is self-knowledge. As there is a feeling of peace and purity when there is no disease like nirvana. Think of not getting sick, illness is the absence of vices, nirvana.
Nirvana is attained when all impurities are destroyed, karma ceases, becomes final, becomes liberated, neither born nor destroyed.
There are 4 types of nirvana:
- Pure Nirvana: The original Dharma is pure, neither born nor destroyed, rests in space.
- Avashit Ya Nirvana: Freedom from Obstacles, Soothing Karmas.
- No Remnant Nirvana: Free from sufferings, birth and death, end of suffering
- No Abode in the Land of Nirvana: No Knowledge of Obstacles, No Great Compassion, No Absolute Knowledge, No Samsara.
Buddha insisted that lust cannot experience nirvana.
Nirvana is eternal happiness, not the temporary happiness we experience in life.
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