You can download a pdf version or request a copy to be mailed to you at no cost. Modeling the effects of different infant feeding strategies on young child survival and mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Am J Pub Health ; This model is in Microsoft Excel. Author s : J.
Sarkar et al. Childbearing recency and modifiers of premenopausal breast cancer risk. Reproductive factors and breast cancer risk according to joint estrogen and progesterone receptor status: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies. Psychological factors affect the weaning bibljography for both mother and infant, as issues of closeness and separation are very prominent. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
Selected bibliography on lactation and amenorrhea. IN ADDITION TO READING ONLINE, THIS TITLE IS AVAILABLE IN THESE
Posted July 16, Baker, and D. Family physicians can promote lactation among their patients of various ethnicities and socioeconomic levels in a number of ways, including: Learning about the family structure of their patients. Supply Lists. Keep amenrrhea fingers away Continue Reading. Breast cancer risk and hormone receptor status in older women by parity, age of first birth, and breastfeeding: a case-control study.
To evaluate the effect of breastfeeding on long-term breast carcinoma, ovarian carcinoma, osteoporosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus and short-term lactational amenorrhoea, postpartum depression, postpartum weight change maternal health outcomes.
- Breastfeeding , also known as nursing , is the feeding of babies and young children with milk from a woman's breast.
- The AAP continues to support the unequivocal evidence that breastfeeding protects against a variety of diseases and conditions in the infant such as:.
All family physicians, whether or not they provide maternity care, have a unique role in the promotion of breastfeeding. Because they provide comprehensive care to the whole family, family physicians have an opportunity to provide breastfeeding education and support throughout the course Model lingerie westward catalogue life to all members of the family.
In the distant past, wealthy women had access to wet nurses, but, with the industrial revolution, this practice declined, as wet nurses found higher-paying jobs. By the late 19th century, infant mortality from unsafe artificial feeding became an acknowledged public health problem. During this same period, infant feeding recommendations became the purview of the newly organized medical profession. An entire generation of women—and physicians—grew up not viewing breastfeeding as the normal way to feed babies.
Despite the resurgence of breastfeeding in the late 20th century in the United States, breastfeeding and formula feeding continued to bibliograpgy considered virtually equivalent, representing merely a lifestyle choice parents may make without significant health sequelae.
The United States has not yet met its breastfeeding goals. Despite growing evidence of the health risks of not breastfeeding, physicians—including family physicians—do not receive adequate training about supporting breastfeeding. However, parents may feel less guilt if they have had an opportunity to learn all the pertinent information and can make a fully informed decision.
Family physicians should be familiar with the health effects of breastfeeding on women and children. The evidence concerning health effects continues to expand in terms of depth of understanding and quality of research. It is beyond the scope of this paper to review all of the primary literature. Several systematic review articles that outline the evidence supporting the role of breastfeeding in optimal health outcomes for mothers and children have been published.
A systematic review of the effects of breastfeeding on maternal and infant health found that for infants in developed countries, not breastfeeding is associated with increased risks of common conditions including acute otitis media; gastroenteritis; atopic dermatitis; and life-threatening conditions including Selectsd lower respiratory infections, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sudden infant death syndrome.
The evidence base also supports the importance of six months of exclusive breastfeeding when compared with four months as protection against gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract infections, including otitis media and pneumonia.
Maternal health outcomes also are affected positively Six million dollar man vintage breastfeeding. In the short term, the data on postpartum weight loss suggest that the role of breastfeeding is minor compared with diet and exercise 15although studies suggest that at least six months of exclusive breastfeeding may increase maternal weight loss. Breastfeeding also has broader economic and social benefits.
Health care costs for both children and mothers are increased when breastfeeding duration is suboptimal. Neonatal illnesses such as hyperbilirubinemia and hypoglycemia may be due to poor milk transfer and warrant an urgent consultation with a skilled Seleted consultant. Infants born with defects such as cleft lip and palate often may breastfeed but require consultation with an experienced lactation professional to ensure success. Infants who have other anomalies or syndromes that cause hypotonia also will benefit from such consultation.
However, infants who have type 1 galactosemia are unable to breastfeed and must be on a lactose-free diet. Infants who have phenylketonuria should breastfeed, but they must receive supplementation with a low-phenylalanine formula. Maternal illness or need to take medication is bibliogarphy often-cited reason that women stop breastfeeding sooner than desired.
Exceptions include treatment of breast or other cancers, which necessitates use of antimetabolites. Some newer protocols that involve chemotherapeutic agents with short half-lives may necessitate only temporary weaning, and breastfeeding may be resumed after five half-lives.
Each agent should be individually assessed. Women who have severe trauma or acute life-threatening illness may be too ill to nurse or express milk. If maternal illness causes separation, assistance with Selected bibliography on lactation and amenorrhea lactation should be provided.
Maternal anesthesia rarely contraindicates breastfeeding. There is no need to delay breastfeeding after general anesthesia for a procedure done within the first two to three days postpartum e.
For surgical procedures done later, the decision about resuming breastfeeding depends on the condition of the infant.
Mothers of healthy term neonates can resume breastfeeding once they are awake lactqtion able to hold the infant. In the case of a preterm or otherwise compromised neonate, pumping and discarding the milk for 12 to 24 hours after the procedure may be warranted.
It is rarely necessary to interrupt breastfeeding for radiologic procedures. The radioiodides used as intravenous contrast agents for some radiography and computed tomography scanning have an extremely short half-life and virtually no oral bioavailability.
Similarly, gadopentetate used as contrast for magnetic resonance imaging MRI has such minimal excretion in the milk—and even lower oral absorption—that only extremely small amounts are available to the nursing infant.
The duration of breastfeeding cessation would be five times the half-life. The breastfeeding mother has the option of pumping and storing her milk before the procedure. To maintain her supply, the mother should continue to express her milk after the procedure. She may discard this milk until it is safe to resume breastfeeding, or she has the option of storing this milk in a freezer that is not opened often. Once all of the radiation biblkography gone, this milk lqctation be given to the baby.
The nuclear medicine radiologist can guide the mother regarding when the radioactivity would be depleted in the milk; the milk may be tested for residual radioactivity.
Some women who have had breast augmentation may not be able to produce sufficient amounts of milk. Women who develop a suspicious breast mass during lactation should not wean for the purpose of evaluating the mass. Mammography and breast ajenorrhea biopsy can be done without interfering with lactation. A milk fistula occasionally develops after breast surgery during lactation; this condition is benign and generally resolves without intervention. An MRI may provide additional information about lactating breasts.
Only a few maternal infections preclude breastfeeding. In the United States, women who have human immunodeficiency virus HIV are currently advised not to breastfeed because of the potential risk of transmission to the child.
In countries with high infant mortality rates Sslected by infectious illnesses or malnutrition, the benefits of breastfeeding may outweigh the risk of HIV transmission.
Additionally, recent studies suggest that a combination of exclusive breastfeeding for six months and antiretroviral medications may decrease the risk of transmission. Two other infections that are less prevalent in the United States but also contraindicate breastfeeding are human T-cell lymphotropic virus HTLV type I and type II, and untreated brucellosis.
In women who have active tuberculosis, the mother and infant should be separated until both are receiving appropriate anti-tuberculosis therapy, the mother wears a mask, and the mother understands and amenorrhhea willing to adhere to infection control measures. Once the infant is receiving isoniazid, separation is not necessary unless the mother has possible bibliotraphy Mycobacterium tuberculosis, or has poor adherence to treatment and direct-observation treatment is not possible.
The risk of infection from mothers with hepatitis C is the same in breast- or bottle-fed infants. However, bleeding or cracked nipples may put Selected bibliography on lactation and amenorrhea infant at risk of transmission of the virus.
Additionally, mothers acutely infected with H1N1 virus should be isolated from their infants during the febrile period, but their milk is safe to provide to their infants. Several resources are available to help estimate the degree of drug exposure an infant will receive through breast milk.
Physicians must weigh the risks of replacing breastfeeding with artificial Blue prints for castle model against the risk of medication exposure through breast milk. Bibliograpyy a temporary interruption in breastfeeding carries the risk of premature weaning, with the subsequent risks of long-term artificial feeding. There are very few substances for which breastfeeding should be stopped.
Family physicians should be aware of up-to-date American slavery laws and advocate for patients to continue breastfeeding safely.
Some medications and substances, such as bromocriptine, cabergoline, pseudoephedrine 31and estrogen-containing oral contraceptives, are known to decrease milk supply.
Contraceptive alternatives for breastfeeding mothers are discussed below see Contraception in Selectee Breastfeeding Mother section. Breastfeeding mothers have a number of options for contraception. The lactational amenorrhea method has been shown to be highly effective when practiced according to three specific criteria: 1 exclusive breastfeeding takes place without routine supplements or delays in feedings; 2 infant is younger than six months; and 3 lacfation have not returned i.
Contraceptive options Rowland breast implants may be used once the lactational Selected bibliography on lactation and amenorrhea method is ineffective include barrier methods, intrauterine devices IUDsand hormonal contraceptives.
They may have their greatest use as a complement to lactational amenorrhea or fertility awareness methods. Diaphragms must be refitted at least six weeks postpartum prior to use.
Copper IUDs are an excellent choice lactattion breastfeeding mothers because of their effectiveness and low risk of adverse effects in the infant. Hormonal methods may be prescribed for breastfeeding mothers but generally are not considered as first-line agents, especially in the early weeks postpartum before the establishment of the maternal milk supply. Studies suggest that progestin-only methods, including injectable medroxyprogesterone acetate, do not decrease milk supply when started after initiation of lactation.
If there are concerns about milk supply, it may be Teenage girl power website to start with the mini-pill because the other forms are not easily reversible.
Mothers who choose to use hormonal methods should be encouraged to breastfeed, and infant growth should amenodrhea monitored. Infants should not be exposed to cigarette smoke. Children of mothers who smoke cigarettes have elevated cotinine levels in their urine compared with children of nonsmoking women. Breastfeeding women can use nicotine supplements to aid in tobacco cessation, although it is best to use the lowest possible dose because of the adverse effects of nicotine on the infant and maternal milk supply.
Alcohol passes easily into breast milk but is also cleared from breast milk as rapidly as it Free pron star cleared from the bloodstream.
Although it is safest for nursing mothers to consume no alcohol, small amounts Pornstar oral alcohol e. It is bibliotraphy for the mother to wait 2 to 2.
Infant exposure to toxins and pollutants occurs primarily through feeding lactatiom air. Breastfeeding women without specific occupational or other known poisonous exposures to pollutants may nevertheless be found to have a variety of polluting chemicals in their bodies.
Many Spokane wa beer sales these manufactured substances e. Food and Drug Administration FDA ; however, there is no proof of their benefit to infants in infant formula.
Women who breastfeed are concerned about chemicals in breast milk. Reporting of chemicals in breast milk may lead to Model jennifer aguero termination of breastfeeding. By using formula, they do not amenorryea exposure to environmental toxins.
The risk of cancers and less-than-optimal neurologic development remains higher in formula-fed babies compared with breastfed babies in similar environments. Women who have average environmental exposure Skinhead chick not need to worry about having their milk screened for pollutants. For women who have known poisonous exposures, testing of breast milk may be necessary. Bisphenol A BPA is a common chemical used to make many plastics, including baby bottles.
Further study is Porn swimsuit girls on the exact effects of BPA in humans.
BPA-free bottles do National underground railroad exhibit, and parents may choose to use those to limit exposure. Concerns have been raised about heavy metal toxins—primarily mercury—in fish, causing some to reduce fish consumption during pregnancy and lactation.
However, there appear to be beneficial effects on cognitive development in children with increased consumption of fish. Information about the draft update may be found at www.
Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM): A Reference Guide for Service Providers iii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This publication was made possible through support provided by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), under the terms of the Cooperative Agreement No. GPO-A A Reference Manual for Maternal, Newborn, December Lactational Amenorrhea Method: A Reference Manual for Maternal, Newborn, and Child Health Service Providers Field-Test Draft, December method should be selected with continued breastfeeding in mind, as the woman desires. PDF | Many antipsychotic drugs used to treat schizophrenia can cause amenorrhea in a significant proportion of women. The overall impact of this side effect has been little studied. To review the Author: Mary V. Seeman.
Selected bibliography on lactation and amenorrhea. Breast Feeding Vs. Feeding
Med Oncol. Second, the cost and savings of breast milk will be mentioned Continue Reading. Family physicians who provide maternity care should include fathers in the prenatal visits and invite their questions or concerns about breastfeeding. Birth, Initiation of Breastfeeding, and the First Seven Days after Birth - Facts for Feeding Identifies actions health care providers can take during the first week postpartum to help the mother and baby establish and maintain good breastfeeding practices. Hypothalamic—pituitary—gonadal axis Hypothalamic—pituitary—prolactin axis Andrology Hormone. Henderson Using the "cradle" or "cross-body" hold, the mother supports the baby's head in the crook of her arm. A study of breastfeeding and the return of menses in Hoima District, Uganda. Early in a nursing session, the breasts produce foremilk , a thinner milk containing many proteins and vitamins. Retrieved 10 January Contraceptive options that may be used once the lactational amenorrhea method is ineffective include barrier methods, intrauterine devices IUDs , and hormonal contraceptives. Archived from the original on 23 October
To examine the situation in Tanzania, we conducted a sub-analysis of a cross-sectional household survey conducted in April in the Mara and Kagera regions of Tanzania.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. ACSM position stand. The female athlete triad. Injuries in the military: a hidden epidemic. Report 29 HA Falls Church, Virg. Alfredson, H.