The list is based on research into the use of tactics ranging from imprisonment and repressive laws to harassment of journalists and restrictions on Internet access. In Eritrea, President Isaias Afewerki has succeeded in his campaign to crush independent journalism, creating a media climate so oppressive that even reporters for state-run news outlets live in constant fear of arrest. The threat of imprisonment has led many journalists to choose exile rather than risk arrest. Eritrea is Africa's worst jailer of journalists, with at least 23 behind bars-none of whom has been tried in court or even charged with a crime. Fearing the spread of Arab Spring uprisings, Eritrea scrapped plans in to provide mobile Internet for its citizens, limiting the possibility of access to independent information.
He is the first Chinese citizen to be awarded a Nobel Prize of any kind while residing in Known asian country writings. By Availability Free. Retrieved 12 April xountry When individuals have realized public acclaim for athletic prowess, their achievements have been characterized in media and elsewhere as an exception to the Asian American experience, even when their success also represents its common collective narratives. Clift, Mark G.
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Vietnam: What's in a Name? Archived from the original on 25 May Apart from a few Known asian country writings underwater trenches, the oceans are shallow, which means they are rather warm and not very saline. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Literature. In Vietnam, many bloggers are put under surveillance in an attempt to prevent them from attending and reporting on news events. With limited access to information in Eritrea, CPJ cannot independently confirm the deaths and continues to list the journalists on its prison census as a means of holding the government accountable for their fate. Authorities widely block access to websites critical of the government, including such popular foreign-hosted blogs as Danlambaowhich covers Bina model, human rights issues, and disputes with Known asian country writings. Examples of Korean poetric forms include sijo and gasawith Jeong Cheol and Yun Seon-do considered to be the supreme Korean poets.
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The list is based on research into the use of tactics ranging from imprisonment and repressive laws to harassment of journalists and restrictions on Internet access.
In Eritrea, President Isaias Afewerki has succeeded in his campaign to crush independent journalism, creating a media climate so oppressive that even reporters for state-run news outlets live in constant fear of arrest.
The threat of imprisonment has led many journalists to choose exile rather than risk arrest. Eritrea is Africa's worst jailer of journalists, with at least 23 behind bars-none of whom has been tried in court or even charged with a crime. Fearing the spread of Arab Spring uprisings, Eritrea scrapped plans in to provide mobile Internet for its citizens, limiting the possibility of access to independent information. Although Internet is available, it is through slow dial-up connections, and fewer than 1 percent of the population goes online, according to U.
International Telecommunication Union figures. Eritrea also has the lowest figure globally of cell phone users, with just 5. In North Korea, 9. In place of the global Internet, to which only a select few powerful individuals have access, some schools and other institutions have access to a tightly controlled intranet.
And despite the arrival of an Associated Press bureau in Pyongyang inthe state has such a tight grip on the news agenda that newsreel was re-edited to remove Kim Jong Un's disgraced uncle from the archives after his execution.
The tactics used by Eritrea and North Korea are mirrored to varying degrees in other heavily censored countries. To keep their grip on power, repressive regimes use a combination of media monopoly, harassment, spying, threats of journalist imprisonment, and restriction of journalists' entry into or movements within their countries.
Of the 44 journalists imprisoned-the largest figure for China since CPJ began its annual census in were held on anti-state charges. Ethiopia's anti-terrorism lawwhich criminalizes any reporting that authorities deem to "encourage" or "provide moral support" to banned groups, has been Known asian country writings against many of the 17 journalists in jail there. China, despite having hundreds of millions of Internet users, maintains the " Great Firewall ," a sophisticated blend of human censors and technological tools, to block critical websites and rein in social media.
In countries with advanced technology such as China, Internet restrictions are combined with the threat of imprisonment to ensure that critical voices cannot gain leverage online. Thirty-two of China's 44 jailed journalists worked online. Authorities there are suspected of setting up fake versions of popular sites and search engines as part of surveillance techniques. In Vietnam, Known asian country writings bloggers are put under surveillance in an attempt to prevent them from attending and reporting on news events.
In Iran, journalists' relatives have been summoned by authorities and told Teenage jobs in the uk they could lose their jobs and pensions because of the journalists' Known asian country writings. And in Cuba, which has made some progress, including resuming diplomatic relations with the U. Restricting journalists' movements and barring foreign correspondents is also a common tactic used by censoring governments.
In Eritrea, the last remaining accredited international reporter was Naruto pics shippuden inand the few outside reporters invited in occasionally to interview the president are closely monitored; in China, foreign correspondents have been subjected to arbitrary delays Toy model cars roadster visa applications.
Four heavily censored nations that nearly made the list are Belarus, Equatorial Guinea, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan, all of which have little to no independent media and are so tightly closed that it can be difficult even to get information about conditions for journalists. In some countries, notably Syriaconditions are extremely dangerous and journalists have been abducted, held captive, and killed, some by forces loyal to President Bashar al-Assad but also by militant groups such as the Islamic State.
How censorship works : Only state media is allowed to disseminate news; the last accredited international correspondent was expelled in Even those working for the heavily censored state press live in constant fear of arrest for any report perceived as critical to the ruling party, or on suspicion that they leaked information outside the country. The last privately owned media outlets were suspended and their journalists jailed in None of those arrested are taken to court, and the fear of arrest Countryside adult care forced dozens of journalists into exile.
Those in exile try to provide access to independent online news websites and radio broadcasts, but the opportunity to do so is limited because of signal jamming and tight online control by the sole state-run telecommunications company, EriTel. All mobile communications must go through EriTel, and all Internet service providers must use the government-controlled gateway. Access to the Internet is extremely limited and available only through slow dial-up connections. Less than 1 percent of the population goes online, according to U.
Lowlight : Five independent journalists who were arrested in may have died in prison, according to recent exiles. With limited access to information in Eritrea, CPJ cannot independently confirm the deaths and continues to list the journalists on its prison census as a means of holding the government accountable for their fate.
How censorship works : Embarsing wetting pants storys 53 of the country's constitution calls for freedom of the press, but even with an Associated Press bureau -staffed by North Koreans and located in the Pyongyang headquarters of the state-run Korean Central News Agency-and a small foreign press corps from politically sympathetic countries, access to independent news sources is extremely limited.
Nearly all the content of North Korea's 12 main newspapers, 20 periodicals, and broadcasters comes from the official Korean Central News Agencywhich focuses on the political leadership's statements and activities. Internet is restricted to the political elite, but some schools and state institutions have access to a tightly controlled intranet called Kwangmyong, according to the AP.
North Koreans looking for independent information have turned to bootlegged foreign TV and radio signals and smuggled foreign DVDs, particularly along the porous border with China. Although cell phones are banned, some citizens have been able in recent years to access news through smuggled phones, which rely on Chinese cell towers.
South Korean newspapers have reported that North Korea in started Known asian country writings smartphones that run on a network built by the Egyptian company Orascom and the state-owned Korea Post and Telecommunications Corp.
Traders in street markets are regularly seen with 3G phones that can support video exchange and texting, according to travelers returning from North Korea. Lowlight : After Kim Jong Un ordered his uncle, Jang Song Thaek, executed around the time of the second anniversary of his father's deathany mention of Jang was removed from state media archives, including official video from which Jang was carefully edited.
Jang was vilified in the media as the "despicable human scum, who was worse than a dog. How censorship works : The Saudi government has progressively intensified legal repression since the Arab Spring. Amendments to the press law in punished the publication of any materials deemed to contravene sharia, impinge on state interests, promote foreign interests, harm public order or national security, Dance hula instruction enable criminal activity.
Inthe government issued a new anti-terrorism law and regulations that Human Rights Watch said will "criminalize virtually any expression or association critical of the government and its understanding of Islam. The General Commission for Audiovisual Media announced in April that it will monitor online and YouTube content to ensure that Saudi contributors, among the largest audience for the online video-sharing site, adhere to government guidelines.
YouTube is used by many Saudis to address controversial issues, such as women drivingand to document events not covered in the media, such as the stabbing of a Canadian in a Dhahran city mall in November Saudi Arabia also used its regional influence in the Gulf Cooperation Council to pass restrictions that prevent media in member states from criticizing the leadership of other member states.
Lowlight : A string of arrests and prosecutions of those expressing independent views took place in Many of those arrested were accused of press-related charges after covering protests. In October the government used a anti-cybercrime law to charge at least seven Saudis in connection with their use of Twitter to allegedly criticize the authorities and to call for women to be allowed to drive. How censorship works : As Ethiopia prepared for its May elections, the state systematically cracked down on the country's remaining independent publications through the arrests of journalists and intimidation of printing and distribution companies.
Ten independent journalists and bloggers were imprisoned in ; authorities filed a lawsuit in August accusing six publications of "encouraging terrorism," forcing at least 16 journalists to flee into exile. There are no independent broadcasters, though broadcasts from the U.
The state-controlled telecommunications company Ethio Telecom is the sole Internet provider and routinely suspends critical news websites. International journalists work in Ethiopia, but many are under surveillance and face harassment. Although journalists have not had difficulties acquiring accreditation in the past, newer arrivals say that they face challenges. Lowlight : Authorities in unleashed the largest onslaught against the press since a crackdown in after disputed parliamentary elections.
Ten independent journalists and bloggers were arrested on anti-state charges, and at least eight independent publications were shut down. Leadership : President Ilham Aliyev has been in power since Octoberafter being named successor by his father. How censorship works : The main sources of information in Azerbaijan are broadcasters, which are owned and controlled by the state or its proxies. International broadcasters are barred or their satellite signals are jammed. Critical print outlets have been subjected to harassment from officials, including debilitating lawsuits, evictions, a ban on foreign funding, and advisories to businesses against advertising.
Online speech is subject to self-censorship because of a criminal defamation law that carries a six-month prison sentence. News and social media websites are blocked arbitrarily. At least 10 journalists and bloggers, including the award-winning reporter Khadija Ismayilovaare in Azerbaijani jails. Several critical journalists fled the country inand those remaining faced attacks and harassment, were banned from traveling, or were prosecuted on fabricated charges.
Several other international non-governmental organizations that supported the local media were also forced to cease work in Azerbaijan after authorities accused them of tax evasion, raided their offices, and froze bank accounts. Staff at these organizations and their families faced harassment from officials.
How censorship works : Vietnam's Communist Party-run government allows no privately held print or broadcast outlets. Under the Media Law Article 1, Chapter 1all media working in Vietnam must serve as "the mouthpiece of Party organizations.
Forbidden topics include the activities of political dissidents and activists; factional divisions inside the Communist Molson twin labels human rights issues; and any mention of ethnic differences between the country's once-divided northern and southern regions.
Independent bloggers who report on sensitive issues have faced persecution through street-level attacks, arbitrary arrests, surveillance, and harsh prison sentences for anti-state charges. Vietnam is one of the world's worst jailers of journalists, with at least 16 behind bars.
Authorities widely block access to websites critical of the government, including such popular foreign-hosted blogs as Danlambaowhich covers politics, human rights issues, and disputes with China.
In Septembera new law Known asian country writings state censorship to social media Sex of fetus ultrasound, making it illegal to post any material, including foreign news articles, deemed to "oppose the state" or "harm national security. Lowlight : Authorities have increasingly used Articlethe anti-state law that vaguely criminalizes "abusing democratic freedoms," to threaten and prosecute independent bloggers.
At least three bloggers have been convicted under the law, which allows for seven-year prison sentences. Leadership : Ayatollah Ali Khamenei has been supreme leader since Hassan Rouhani has been president since August How censorship works : The government uses mass and arbitrary detention as a means of silencing dissent and forcing journalists into exile.
Iran became the world's leading jailer of journalists in and has ranked among the world's worst jailers of the press every year since. Iranian authorities maintain one of the toughest Internet censorship regimes in the world, blocking millions of websites, including news and social networking sites. They are suspected of using sophisticated techniquessuch as setting up fake versions of Beaver build dam model websites and search engines, and the regime frequently jams satellite signals.
The situation for the press has not improved under Rouhani despite the hopes of U. Rouhani also failed to uphold his campaign promise Pregnancy feel movements reinstate the 4,member Association of Iranian Journalists, which was forced to close in Lowlight : Iranian authorities control coverage of certain topics by tightening the small circle of journalists and news outlets allowed to report on them.
The newspaper, which supports former President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, had published four articles that criticized Iran's international nuclear negotiations and alleged corruption in the government's dealing with an oil company.
Document 9a secret white paper dated April 22,which was widely leaked online and to the international press, included the directive to "combat seven political perils" and reject the concept of "universal values" and the promotion of "the West's view of media. In late NovemberXu Xiao, a poetry and arts editor for the Beijing-based business magazine Caixinwas detained on suspicion of "endangering national security. International journalists trying to work in China have faced obstacleswith visas delayed or denied.
Although some visa restrictions between the U. President Barack Obama in November Xi argued that international journalists facing visa restrictions had brought the trouble on themselves. Lowlight : Gao Yu, one of 44 journalists behind bars in China, was detained on charges of illegally providing state secrets abroad, days after details of Document 9 appeared in Mirror Monthlya Chinese-language political magazine in New York.
Gao, 70, confessed on official state broadcaster CCTV, but during her closed trial, on November 21,she said that the confession was false and made only to prevent her son from being threatened and harassed, her lawyer said. Leadership : President Thein Sein, a former general, has led a quasi-civilian administration since
In East Asian calligraphy, vertical writing remains the dominant direction. Graphic novels. Japanese graphic novels, also known as manga, tend to use vertical direction for text. Manga frames tend to flow in right-to-left horizontal direction. Frames in yonkoma manga tend to flow in a vertical direction. Page ordering is the same as books that Hangul: 횡서 or 가로쓰기. Aug 11, · This country is another island nation, sitting just offshore of the Asian continent and cradled by the sea all around. Sri Lanka is a nation of spice and flavour, offering tourists a unique blend of humid temperatures, Indian-inspired foods, and a population of right-at-home elephants. The names of these Asian countries are Abkhazia, Nagorno-Karabakh, Northern Cyprus, Palestine, South Ossetia and Taiwan. Abkhazia is a mountainous country that is located on the Eastern coast of the Black Sea, and it shares its border with Georgia, Russia and North Caucasus. Nagorno-Karabakh is another mountainous region that lies within.
Known asian country writings. 1. Eritrea
Indian philosophy includes Hindu philosophy and Buddhist philosophy. Although largely disregarded since the humanistic turn of ecocriticism at the beginning of the 21st century, nature writing has continued to play an important role in nurturing trans-Pacific, and transnational, literary environmentalism. Rather, in the nuclear age, it must include a The world's largest single Muslim community within the bounds of one nation is in Indonesia. See also: List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Asia. Commercial interaction with South Asia eventually lead to the adoption of culture from India and China including Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Daoism. China 9. Asian immigrants also played musical instruments at community events. As John W. The Sampler of Letters and the Handbook on Calligraphy. Its 4. Asia-Pacific Ring of Fire. Archived from the original on 5 June The modern borders created by colonial powers—for instance, between Malaysia and Indonesia—do not reflect logical cultural divisions. Pakistani literature has a rich history, and draws influences from both Persian, Muslim and Indian literary traditions.
The Cham people of central Vietnam and Cambodia are also Muslim. Islam is the state religion in Malaysia and Brunei.
Posted By: Dattatreya Mandal September 8, The episodes of war and human conflicts are persistent when it comes to the rich tapestry of history. And in such a vast ambit of wanton destruction and death, there have been a few civilizations, tribes and factions that had accepted warfare as an intrinsic part of their culture. Preference for choosing the said cultures is partly based on their variant geographical power-centers. Circa BC, the Akkadians carved up the first known all-Mesopotamian empire, thereby momentously uniting the speakers of both Sumerian and Akkadian. In fact, by the middle of the 3rd millennium BC, the Akkadians managed to create a culturally syncretic scope that encompassed a melting pot of different ethnicity and city-states , which ultimately paved the way for the emergence of Akkadian as the lingua franca of Mesopotamia for many centuries to come.